COL Rudman’s Page of Research Corrections

The Great Schism

1378-1415

In the year 1378, the Roman Catholic Church split when the King of France decided that he did not like the Italian Pope and elected one of his own. The Great Schism, as it has been called, lasted for about 68 years, during which time there were two popes claiming authority over the Catholic Church.

Back to “Conflict Between Pope and Emperor” Chronology

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The so-called “Babylonian Captivity” was one of the main factors Which caused the Great Schism. In 1309, Pope Clement V moved the papacy and his residence to Avignon, a city just outside French territory on the Rhone River. This allowed Phillip the Fair, King of France, to exert a great deal of influence over the pope. In 1377, Pope Gregory XI made a significant move and returned the papacy to Rome.

After Pope Gregory XI died, an Italian Pope was elected. However, the French did not like him. Therefore, they elected their own pope who ruled from Avignon where the pope had been during the Avignese Papacy. This was also regarded by many as a location that worked well in centralizing leadership. As a result of this, Western Christendom split, with two popes and two accompanying papal structures.

Now Western Europe was politically divided over which pope to support. Of course France supported the Avignon pope. Along with France were Sicily, Scotland, Castile, Aragon, and Portugal. On the other side, Rome supported the Roman pope, as did Flanders, Poland, Hungary and Germany. Many citizens were confused over this split, but those who were not decided to take advantage of it. The two popes were constant rivals. It was common to hear each calling the other the anti-pope and also trying to get him out of a position of leadership. Their main motive for these actions was to gain allies for themselves. There were very few people who actually took the claims of these so-called spiritual leaders seriously because of the fact that they were competing constantly with one another just like anyone dealing with worldly politics. The effects of this split on the general population can be summarized as follows, “The papal office suffered the most; the pope’s authority diminished as pious Christians became bewildered and disgusted.”

Following the split, the papal offices began to lose authority. For a time conditions improved, but they did not stay favorable. Finally, the cardinals of both popes decided that an ecumenical council of godly men could collectively possess more divine authority that just one pope. So, in 1409 they asked the church council in Pisa to elect a new pope that could unite the sides. The Pisian council did, but neither pope was willing to give up his power. Thus, three popes were vying for authority over the church.

Finally between 1414 and 1418, the Council of Constance was successful in healing the Schism. The deposition of the Avignon Pope induced the resignation of the Roman Pope. Therefore, the schism was healed and there was room for the election of a single pope, Pope Martin V, who reigned from 1417-1431.

Edited by: Meredith L. Berg
Researched by: Jelani N. Greenidge
Written by: Donita R. McWilliams
November 25, 1997

Text copyright 1996-1999 by David W. Koeller. All rights reserved.

Before we get deep into Columbus, I wanted to check something regarding Ptolemy. I always thought the size of the earth was calculated before 1 AD and so, it has been bothering me a lot, I really have no life you see. Anyway, I did some checking and found this clarification:

Posidonius “of Rhodes” (c. 135 B.C- 51 B.C), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian, and teacher. Born in Apamea, a Roman city in Syria, he settled in Rhodes around 95 B.C and rose to such prominence that he served as a prytaneis (president) of Rhodes and was sent to Rome as an ambassador. He conducted research in numerous fields and traveled widely throughout the Roman Empire. His school in Rhodes attracted many Greek and Roman students, and his lectures were attended by Cicero during a visit to Rhodes.

He measured the earth’s circumference by observing the position of the star Canopus. His method was correct, but due to observational errors, his result was about a third smaller than the actual circumference of Earth. Ptolemy was impressed by his method and his approval of Posidonius’s result, rather than Eratosthenes’s earlier and more correct figure, caused it to become the accepted value for Earth’s circumference for the next 1,500 years.

Eratosthenes (276 B.C– 194 B.C) was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. His contemporaries nicknamed him “beta” (Greek for “number two”) because he supposedly proved himself to be the second in the ancient Mediterranean world in many fields. He was the first to use the word “geography” (“writing about the earth” in Greek) as the title of a treatise about the world. Geography also introduced the climatic concepts of torrid, temperate, and frigid zones.

He was noted for devising a system of latitude and longitude for the maps he created, and was the first person known to have calculated the circumference of the Earth, using trigonometry and knowledge of the angle of elevation of the Sun at noon in Alexandria and Syene (now Aswan, Egypt). He calculated the earth’s circumference as 39,690 kilometers, an error of less than one percent (the actual distance is 40,008 kilometers). His calculation was accepted by scholars through the Middle Ages.

BUT!!!! Christopher Columbus used Posidonius’ shorter measurement, as approved by Ptolemy, to convince his supporters that he could quickly reach Asia by sailing west from Europe.

In addition to thinking that Asia was much larger than it really is, Ptolemy underestimated the size of the Earth. Ptolemy knew about Eratosthenes’ estimate for the size of the Earth, but used his own estimate. Unfortunately for Ptolemy, Eratosthenes was surprisingly accurate in his estimate. Ptolemy however estimated that the Earth’s circumference was only about 18,000 miles.

The errors in Ptolemy’s geographical knowledge led to a monumental discovery.The combination of these two errors led Christopher Columbus to believe that he could reach the East Indies and Asia by sailing west from Spain. The distance turned out to be much greater than Columbus thought from reading Ptolemy’s geography. Of course there was also another continent in the way.

Betcha’ didn’t know:

In 1260, the brothers and Venetian merchants Niccolo and Matteo Polo traveled east from Europe. In 1265, they arrived at Kaifeng, the capital of Kublai Khan’s (also known as the Great Khan) Mongol Empire. In 1269, the brothers returned to Europe with a request from Khan for the Pope to send one hundred missionaries to the Mongol Empire, supposedly to help convert the Mongols to Christianity. The Khan’s message was ultimately relayed to the Pope but he did not send the requested missionaries.

Upon arriving in Venice, Nicolo discovered that his wife had died, leaving the care of a son, Marco (born in 1254 and thus fifteen years old), in his hands. In 1271, the two brothers and Marco began to trek eastward and in 1275 met the Great Khan.

Khan liked Marco and he served in several high-level government positions, including as ambassador and as the governor of the city of Yangzhou. While the Great Khan enjoyed having the Polos as his subjects and diplomats, Khan eventually consented to allow them to leave the Empire, as long as they would escort a princess who was scheduled to wed a Persian king.

The three Polos left the Empire in 1292 with the princess, a fleet of fourteen large boats, and 600 other passengers from a port in southern China. The armada sailed through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and onto its final destination at the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. Supposedly, only eighteen people survived from the original 600, including the Princess who could not wed her intended fiancee because he had died, so she married his son instead.

The three Polos returned to Venice and Marco joined the army to fight against the city-state of Genoa. He was captured in 1298 and imprisoned in Genoa. While in prison for two years, he dictated an account of his travels to a fellow prisoner named Rustichello. Shortly thereafter, The Travels of Marco Polo was published in French.

Though Polo’s book exaggerates places and cultures, his book was widely published, translated into many languages, and thousands of copies were printed.

Polo’s book includes fanciful accounts of men with tails and cannibals seem to be around every corner. The book is somewhat a geography of Asian provinces. Marco brought the ideas of paper currency and coal to Europe. He also included second-hand reports of areas that he had not visited, such as Japan and Madagascar.

The book was a favorite of Columbus.

By Matt Rosenberg, About.com Guide

End of the Vikings in Greenland
greenlanders

This is really interesting:

WWII Aircraft Facts – astounding numbers

>
> Amazing WW2 Aircraft Facts.
>
> On average 6600 American service men died per MONTH, during WW2 (about 220 a day).
>
> People who were not around during WW2 have no understanding of the magnitude. This gives some insight.
>
> 276,000 aircraft manufactured in the US.
> 43,000 planes lost overseas, including 23,000 in combat.
> 14,000 lost in the continental U.S.
>
>
> The staggering cost of aircraft in 1945 dollars
>
> B-17 $204,370. P-40 $44,892.
> B-24 $215,516. P-47 $85,578.
> B-25 $142,194. P-51 $51,572.
> B-26 $192,426. C-47 $88,574.
> B-29 $605,360. PT-17 $15,052.
> P-38 $97,147. AT-6 $22,952.
>
>
> From Germany ‘s invasion of Poland , Sept. 1, 1939, until Japan ‘s surrender on Sept. 2, 1945 = 2,433 days.
> America lost an average of 170 planes a day.
>
> A B-17 carried 2,500 gallons of high octane fuel and carried a crew of 10 airmen.
>
> 9.7 billion gallons of gasoline consumed.
> 108 million hours flown.
> 460 thousand million rounds of aircraft ammo fired overseas.
> 7.9 million bombs dropped overseas.
> 2.3 million combat flights.
> 299,230 aircraft used.
> 808,471 aircraft engines used.
> 799,972 propellers.
>
> WWII MOST-PRODUCED COMBAT AIRCRAFT
>
> Russian Ilyushin IL-2 Sturmovik 36,183
>
>

>
> Yakolev Yak-1,-3,-7, -9 31,000
>
>

> Messerschmitt BF-109 30,480
>
>
> Focke-Wulf Fw-190 29,001
>
>
> Supermarine Spitfire 20,351

>
> Convair B-24/PB4Y Liberator/Privateer 18,482
>
>
> Republic P-47 Thunderbolt 15,686
>
>
> North American P-51 Mustang 15,875
>
>
> Junkers Ju-88 15,000
>
>
> Hawker Hurricane 14,533
>
>
> Curtiss P-40 Warhawk 13,738
>
>
> Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress 12,731
>
>
> Vought F4U Corsair 12,571
>
>
> Grumman F6F Hellcat 12,275
>
>
> Petlyakov Pe-2 11,400
>
>
> Lockheed P-38 Lightning 10,037

>
> Mitsubishi A6M Zero 10,449
>
>
> North American B-25 Mitchell 9,984
>
>
> Lavochkin LaGG-5 9,920
> >
>
> Grumman TBM Avenger 9,837
>
>
> Bell P-39 Airacobra 9,584
>
>
> Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar 5,919
>
>
> DeHavilland Mosquito 7,780
>
>
> Avro Lancaster 7,377
>
>
> Heinkel He-111 6,508
>
>
> Handley-Page Halifax 6,176
>
>
> Messerschmitt Bf-110 6,150
>
>
> Lavochkin LaGG-7 5,753
>
>
> Boeing B-29 Superfortress 3,970
>
>
> Short Stirling 2,383
>
>
>
> The US lost 14,903 pilots, aircrew and support personnel plus 13,873 airplanes —inside the continental United States. There were 52,651 aircraft accidents (6,039 involving fatalities) in 45 months.
> Average 1,170 aircraft accidents per month—- nearly 40 a day.
>
>
> It gets worse…..
> Almost 1,000 planes disappeared en route from the US to foreign climes. But 43,581 aircraft were lost overseas including 22,948 on combat missions (18,418 in Europe) and 20,633 due to non-combat causes overseas.
>
> In a single 376 plane raid in August 1943, 60 B-17s were shot down. That was a 16 percent loss rate and meant
> 600 empty bunks in England. In 1942-43, it was statistically impossible for bomber crews to complete the intended 25-mission tour in Europe.
>
> Pacific theatre losses were far less (4,530 in combat) owing to smaller forces committed. The B-29 mission against Tokyo on May 25, 1945, cost 26 Superfortresses, 5.6 percent of the 464 dispatched from the Marianas.
>
> On average, 6,600 American servicemen died per month during WWII, about 220 a day. Over 40,000 airmen were killed in combat and another 18,000 wounded. Some 12,000 missing men were declared dead, including those “liberated” by the Soviets but never returned. More than 41,000 were captured. Half of the 5,400 held by the Japanese died in captivity, compared with one-tenth in German hands. Total combat casualties were 121,867.
>
> The US forces peak strength was in 1944 with 2,372,000 personnel, nearly twice the previous year’s figure.
>
> Losses were huge—but so were production totals. From 1941 through 1945, American industry delivered more than 276,000 military aircraft. That was not only for US Army, Navy and Marine Corps, but also for allies as diverse as Britain, Australia, China and Russia.
>
> Our enemies took massive losses. Through much of 1944, the Luftwaffe sustained hemorrhaging of 25% of aircrews and 40 planes a month.
>
>
> Experience Level:
> Uncle Sam sent many men to war with minimum training. Some fighter pilots entered combat in 1942 with less than 1 hour in their assigned aircraft..
> The 357th Fighter Group (The Yoxford Boys) went to England in late 1943 having trained on P-39s, then flew Mustangs. They never saw a Mustang until the first combat mission.
>
> With the arrival of new aircraft, many units transitioned in combat. The attitude was, “They all have a stick and a throttle. Go fly `em.” When the famed 4th Fighter Group converted from P-47s to P-51s in Feb 44, there was no time to stand down for an orderly transition. The Group commander, Col. Donald Blakeslee, said,
> “You can learn to fly 51s on the way to the target”.
>
> A future P-47 ace said, “I was sent to England to die.” Many bomber crews were still learning their trade. Of Jimmy Doolittle’s 15pilots on the April 1942 Tokyo raid, only five had won their wings before 1941. All but one of the 16 co-pilots were less than a year out of flight school.
>
> In WW2, safety took a back seat to combat. The AAF’s worst accident rate was recorded by the A-36 Invader version of the P-51: a staggering 274 accidents per 100,000 flying hours. Next worst were the P-39 at245, the P-40 at 188, and the P-38 at 139. All were Allison powered.
>
> Bomber wrecks were fewer but more expensive. The B-17 and B-24 averaged 30 and 35 accidents per 100,000
> flight hours respectively– a horrific figure considering that from 1980 to2000 the Air Force’s major mishap rate
> was less than 2.
>
> The B-29 was even worse at 40 per 100,000 hours; the world’s most sophisticated, most capable and most expensive bomber was too urgently needed to be able to stand down for mere safety reasons.
>
> (Compare: when a $2.1 billion B-2 crashed in 2008, the Air Force declared a two-month “safety pause”).
>
> The B-29 was no better for maintenance. Although the R3350 was known as a complicated, troublesome power-plant, only half the mechanics had previous experience with it.
>
> Navigators:
> Perhaps the greatest success story concerned Navigators. The Army graduated some 50,000 during WW2.
>
> Many had never flown out of sight of land before leaving “Uncle Sugar” for a war zone. Yet they found their way across oceans and continents without getting lost or running out of fuel – a tribute to the AAF’s training.
>
> At its height in mid-1944, the USAAF had 2.6 million people and nearly 80,000 aircraft of all types.
> Today the US Air Force employs 327,000 active personnel (plus 170,000 civilians) with 5,500+manned and perhaps 200 unmanned aircraft. That’s about 12% of the manpower and 7% of the airplanes of the WW2 peak.
>
> SUMMATION:
> Another war like that of 1939-45 is doubtful, as fighters and bombers have given way to helicopters and remotely-controlled drones, eg. over Afghanistan and Iraq. But within our living memory, men left the earth in 1,000-plane formations and fought major battles five miles high, leaving a legacy that remains timeless.

Amazing WW2 Aircraft Facts.

On average 6600 American service men died per MONTH, during WW2 (about 220 a day).

People who were not around during WW2 have no understanding of the magnitude. This gives some insight.
276,000 aircraft manufactured in the US.
43,000 planes lost overseas, including 23,000 in combat.
14,000 lost in the continental U.S.

The staggering cost of aircraft in 1945 dollars

B-17 $204,370. P-40 $44,892.
B-24 $215,516. P-47 $85,578.
B-25 $142,194. P-51 $51,572.
B-26 $192,426. C-47 $88,574.
B-29 $605,360. PT-17 $15,052.
P-38 $97,147. AT-6 $22,952.

From Germany ‘s invasion of Poland , Sept. 1, 1939, until Japan ‘s surrender on Sept. 2, 1945 = 2,433 days.
America lost an average of 170 planes a day.

A B-17 carried 2,500 gallons of high octane fuel and carried a crew of 10 airmen.

9.7 billion gallons of gasoline consumed.
108 million hours flown.
460 thousand million rounds of aircraft ammo fired overseas.
7.9 million bombs dropped overseas.
2.3 million combat flights.
299,230 aircraft used.
808,471 aircraft engines used.
799,972 propellers.
WWII MOST-PRODUCED COMBAT AIRCRAFT

Russian Ilyushin IL-2 Sturmovik 36,183

Yakolev Yak-1,-3,-7, -9 31,000

Messerschmitt BF-109 30,480

Focke-Wulf Fw-190 29,001

Supermarine Spitfire 20,351

Convair B-24/PB4Y Liberator/Privateer 18,482

Republic P-47 Thunderbolt 15,686

North American P-51 Mustang 15,875

Junkers Ju-88 15,000

Hawker Hurricane 14,533

Curtiss P-40 Warhawk 13,738

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress 12,731

Vought F4U Corsair 12,571

Grumman F6F Hellcat 12,275

Petlyakov Pe-2 11,400

Lockheed P-38 Lightning 10,037

Mitsubishi A6M Zero 10,449

North American B-25 Mitchell 9,984

Lavochkin LaGG-5 9,920

Grumman TBM Avenger 9,837

Bell P-39 Airacobra 9,584

Nakajima Ki-43 Oscar 5,919

DeHavilland Mosquito 7,780

Avro Lancaster 7,377

Heinkel He-111 6,508

Handley-Page Halifax 6,176

Messerschmitt Bf-110 6,150

Lavochkin LaGG-7 5,753

Boeing B-29 Superfortress 3,970

Short Stirling 2,383

The US lost 14,903 pilots, aircrew and support personnel plus 13,873 airplanes —inside the continental United States. There were 52,651 aircraft accidents (6,039 involving fatalities) in 45 months.
Average 1,170 aircraft accidents per month—- nearly 40 a day.

It gets worse…..
Almost 1,000 planes disappeared en route from the US to foreign climes. But 43,581 aircraft were lost overseas including 22,948 on combat missions (18,418 in Europe) and 20,633 due to non-combat causes overseas.
In a single 376 plane raid in August 1943, 60 B-17s were shot down. That was a 16 percent loss rate and meant
600 empty bunks in England. In 1942-43, it was statistically impossible for bomber crews to complete the intended 25-mission tour in Europe.

Pacific theatre losses were far less (4,530 in combat) owing to smaller forces committed. The B-29 mission against Tokyo on May 25, 1945, cost 26 Superfortresses, 5.6 percent of the 464 dispatched from the Marianas.

On average, 6,600 American servicemen died per month during WWII, about 220 a day. Over 40,000 airmen were killed in combat and another 18,000 wounded. Some 12,000 missing men were declared dead, including those “liberated” by the Soviets but never returned. More than 41,000 were captured. Half of the 5,400 held by the Japanese died in captivity, compared with one-tenth in German hands. Total combat casualties were 121,867.
The US forces peak strength was in 1944 with 2,372,000 personnel, nearly twice the previous year’s figure.

Losses were huge—but so were production totals. From 1941 through 1945, American industry delivered more than 276,000 military aircraft. That was not only for US Army, Navy and Marine Corps, but also for allies as diverse as Britain, Australia, China and Russia.

Our enemies took massive losses. Through much of 1944, the Luftwaffe sustained hemorrhaging of 25% of aircrews and 40 planes a month.

Experience Level:
Uncle Sam sent many men to war with minimum training. Some fighter pilots entered combat in 1942 with less than 1 hour in their assigned aircraft..
The 357th Fighter Group (The Yoxford Boys) went to England in late 1943 having trained on P-39s, then flew Mustangs. They never saw a Mustang until the first combat mission.

With the arrival of new aircraft, many units transitioned in combat. The attitude was, “They all have a stick and a throttle. Go fly `em.” When the famed 4th Fighter Group converted from P-47s to P-51s in Feb 44, there was no time to stand down for an orderly transition. The Group commander, Col. Donald Blakeslee, said,
“You can learn to fly 51s on the way to the target”.

A future P-47 ace said, “I was sent to England to die.” Many bomber crews were still learning their trade. Of Jimmy Doolittle’s 15pilots on the April 1942 Tokyo raid, only five had won their wings before 1941. All but one of the 16 co-pilots were less than a year out of flight school.
In WW2, safety took a back seat to combat. The AAF’s worst accident rate was recorded by the A-36 Invader version of the P-51: a staggering 274 accidents per 100,000 flying hours. Next worst were the P-39 at245, the P-40 at 188, and the P-38 at 139. All were Allison powered.

Bomber wrecks were fewer but more expensive. The B-17 and B-24 averaged 30 and 35 accidents per 100,000
flight hours respectively– a horrific figure considering that from 1980 to2000 the Air Force’s major mishap rate
was less than 2.
The B-29 was even worse at 40 per 100,000 hours; the world’s most sophisticated, most capable and most expensive bomber was too urgently needed to be able to stand down for mere safety reasons.

(Compare: when a $2.1 billion B-2 crashed in 2008, the Air Force declared a two-month “safety pause”).
The B-29 was no better for maintenance. Although the R3350 was known as a complicated, troublesome power-plant, only half the mechanics had previous experience with it.

Navigators:
Perhaps the greatest success story concerned Navigators. The Army graduated some 50,000 during WW2.

Many had never flown out of sight of land before leaving “Uncle Sugar” for a war zone. Yet they found their way across oceans and continents without getting lost or running out of fuel – a tribute to the AAF’s training.

At its height in mid-1944, the USAAF had 2.6 million people and nearly 80,000 aircraft of all types.
Today the US Air Force employs 327,000 active personnel (plus 170,000 civilians) with 5,500+manned and perhaps 200 unmanned aircraft. That’s about 12% of the manpower and 7% of the airplanes of the WW2 peak.
SUMMATION:
Another war like that of 1939-45 is doubtful, as fighters and bombers have given way to helicopters and remotely-controlled drones, eg. over Afghanistan and Iraq. But within our living memory, men left the earth in 1,000-plane formations and fought major battles five miles high, leaving a legacy that remains timeless.